Historical information about prices, inflation, stocks, interest rates, exchange rates, labor prices, the value of gold, etc goes under the name of Economic History.
A wealth of economic history data can be found at the Economic History Services website, where you can explore a variety of data sets and use a variety of calculators to answer questions such as these:
- How many modern dollars would I need to buy the same goods that I could have bought for $10 in 1793?
- How has the purchasing power of the pound changed since 1264?
- How much did unskilled labor cost in the past?
- What has happened to interest rates, exchange rates, the cost of living, the stock market, and savings in the past?
Other services at the site include book reviews, databases, an encyclopedia of Economic and Business History, and a massive set of useful links to related sites.